TANTALUM

Atomic symbol: Ta Atomic weight: 80.9479

Atomic number: 73

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-32-11-2

Oxidation states: +5

State of matter: solid         

Heavy metal, ductile

Discovered in 1802 by Anders Gustaf Ekeberg

Boils at 5425°C, melts at 2996°C

Notes: Tantalum is a silver-gray, very hard, malleable, ductile metal. Its properties are similar to that of the element niobium. Some uses for this rare metal are electrolytic capacitors and corrosion resistant chemical equipment.

TELLURIUM

Atomic symbol: Te

Atomic weight: 127.60

Atomic number: 52

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-18-6

Oxidation states: +4, +6, -2

State of matter: solid

Non-metal

Discovered in 1782 by Franz Joseph Müller von Reichenstein

Boils at 989.9°C, melts at 449.8°C

Notes: Tellurium is a semi-metallic element that physically and chemically resembles selenium. Tellurium exists in two forms: a silvery-white brittle, crystalline solid that has a metallic luster, and an amorphous powder that is dark gray to brown. It burns in air and oxygen with a blue- green flame.

TERBIUM

Atomic symbol: Tb Atomic weight: 158.92534

Atomic number: 65

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-27-8-2

Oxidation states: +3

State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, brittle

Discovered in 1843 by Carl Gustaf Mossander

Boils at 3041°C, melts at 1360°C

Notes: Terbium has a silver-white color.

THALLIUM

Atomic symbol: Tl

Atomic weight: 204.3833

Atomic number: 81

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-32-18-3

Oxidation states: +1, +3

State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, low melting

Discovered in 1861 by sir William Crookes

Boils at 1457°C, melts at 303.5°C

Notes: Thallium is a bluish-white, very soft, inelastic, easily fusible, heavy metal. It oxidizes superficially in air, becoming dull. It is poisonous and has few uses. There are two known crystalline forms.

THORIUM

Atomic symbol: Th

Atomic weight: 232.0381

Atomic number: 90

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-32-18-10-2

Oxidation states: +4

State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, ductile

Discovered in 1828 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius

Boils at about 4000°C, melts at about 1700°C

Notes: Thorium is a grayish-white, lustrous, radioactive metal that is somewhat ductile and malleable. When exposed to air it turns gray or black.

TIN

Atomic symbol: Sn Atomic weight: 118.710

Atomic number: 50

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-18-4

Oxidation states: ++2, +4

State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, low-melting

Discovered in ancient times

Boils at 2260°C, melts at 231.88°C

Notes: Tin is silver white, lustrous, soft, very malleable, and ductile metal. It Is slightly tenacious, easily powdered, and comes in the form of bars, foil, powder, shot, etc. It is most widely used for solder, metal used for bearings and plating steel cans for food containers. It is nontoxic, and exists in two allotropic forms—white and gray tin. Gray tin changes to white tin when heated to 55.8°F and more rapidly at 212°F. The reverse happens at low temperatures.

TITANIUM

Atomic symbol: Ti Atomic weight: 47.88

Atomic number: 22

Electron configuration: 2-8-10-2

Oxidation states: +2, +3, +4

State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, brittle

Discovered in 1795 by Martain Heinrich Klaproth

Boils at 3260°C, melts at 1675°C

Notes: Titanium is a dark gray lustrous metal that constitutes 0.6% of the Earth’s crust. It is very light and strong, and fairly corrosion resistant. Its use as a structural metal is increasing. It is extremely reactive with both oxygen and nitrogen. Its principal uses are as special gears and tools.

TUNGSTEN

Atomic symbol: W Atomic weight: 183.85

Atomic number: 74

Electron configuration: 2-818-32-12-2

Oxidation states: +6

State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, ductile

Discovered in 1783 by Juan José and Fausto Elhuyar

Boils at 5927°C, melts at 3410°C

Notes: Tungsten is a steel gray to tin-white metal. It is used in steel because of its strength. It has a second name of Wolfram, and has a nickel white to grayish luster.

Uranium

Atomic symbol: U

Atomic weight: 238.0289

Atomic number: 92

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-32-12-2

Oxidation states: +3, +4, +5, +6

State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, ductile

Discovered in 1789 by Martin Heinrich Klaproth

Boils at 3818°C, melts at 3410°C

Notes: Uranium is a silver-white, lustrous, radioactive, malleable, ductile metal. It is the heaviest naturally occurring element. Uranium is an important nuclear fuel. One pound of uranium renders about the same amount of energy as three million pounds of coal. Uranium-238, after being absorbed by neutrons and undergoing negative         beta          decay, becomes         the element plutonium.

VANADIUM

Atomic symbol: V Atomic weight: 0.9415

Atomic number: 23

Electron configuration: 2-8-11-2

Oxidation states: +2, +3, +4, +5

State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, brittle

Discovered in 1801 by Andrès Manuel de Rio

Boils at 3000°C, melts at 1890°C

Notes: Vanadium is a light gray or white lustrous powder, it does not tarnish in air and not affected by moisture at ordinary temperatures. It is quite rare. When alloyed with steel and iron, high strength structural steel and wear resistant cast iron can be produced.

XENON

Atomic symbol: Xe

Atomic weight: 131.29

Atomic number: 54

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-18-8

Oxidation states: +0

State of matter: gas

Noble gas

Discovered in 1898 by Sir William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers

Boils at -107.1°C, melts at -111.9°C

Notes: Xenon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless relatively inert, monatomic gas. It is heavy and extremely rare. It is inert, meaning it does not react with other elements and has an octet atomic structure. Xenon flash lamps are used to activate ruby lasers. It is the first noble gas to combine with other elements, which was discovered in 1962 by Neil Bartlet, which was previously thought to be impossible.

YTTERBIUM

Atomic symbol: Yb Atomic weight: 173.04

Atomic number: 70

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-32-8-2

Oxidation states: +2, +3

State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, brittle

Discovered in 1878 by J.C.G de Marignac

Boils at 1193°C, melts at 824°C

Notes: Ytterbium has few commercial uses, it is ductile and white in color, and has two allotropic forms.

YTTRIUM

Atomic symbol: Y Atomic weight: 88.90585

Atomic number: 39

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-9-2

Oxidation states: +3

State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, brittle

Discovered in 1794 by Johan Gadolin

Boils at 3337°C, melts at 1529°C

Notes: Yttrium is an iron gray, lustrous, and darkens when exposed to light. It is used for red phosphorous in televisions. It is ductile and fairly reactive. Yttrium is the first rare earth element discovered, and can occur as a byproduct of nuclear fission. It is an important element in the high tech superconductor yttrium barium copper oxide.

ZINC

Atomic symbol: Zn

Atomic weight: 65.39

Atomic number: 30

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-2

Oxidation states: +2

State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, low melting

Discovered in the 13th century

Boils at 907°C, melts at 419°C

Notes: Zinc is a bluish white lustrous metal, stable in dry air. On exposure to moist air, it becomes covered with a white coating of basic carbonate. It is used extensively in galvanized iron. It is also used as an ingredient in alloys such as bronze, brass, Babbitt metal, German silver, and special alloys for die casting, household utensils, building materials and automotive equipment.

ZIRCONIUM

Atomic symbol: Zr

Atomic weight: 91.224

Atomic number: 40

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-10-2

Oxidation states: +4

State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, brittle

Discovered in 1824 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius

Boils at 3578°C, melts at 1852°C

Notes: Zirconium is a bluish-black amorphous powder, or a grayish-white lustrous metal. It is characteristically found in s-type stars. Pure zirconium is a valuable structural material for atomic reactors because of its low nuclear cross- section and high corrosion and heat resistance. It is also used as an ingredient of priming or explosive mixtures, flashlight powders, a deoxidizer in metallurgy, and in flash bulbs.