ALUMINUM

Atomic symbol: Al

Atomic weight: 26.981539

Atomic number: 13

Electron configuration: 2-8-3

Oxidation states: +3 State of matter: solid Heavy metal: low melting

Discovered in 1827 by Friedrich Wöhler Boils at 2467°C, melts at 660°C

Notes:

Aluminum is a white, malleable, ductile metal, with a somewhat bluish tint. It occurs in a variety of silicate rocks, mainly mica and feldspar. These rocks disintegrate by a process called weathering, in which moisture and carbon dioxide form clay, and ultimately aluminum oxide. Weathering also forms the principal aluminum ore, bauxite. Aluminum also occurs as cryolite. Because of its light weight, resistance to corrosion, and tensile strength, it is excellent for the construction of the structure of a building. Because it can easily be rolled into sheets, much is used for aluminum foil. Aluminum powder is sometimes used in some types of paint.

ANTIMONY

Atomic symbol: Sb

Atomic weight: 121.760

Atomic number: 51

Electron configuration: 2- 8 -18-18-5

Oxidation states: ±3, +5 State of matter: solid

Heavy metal: low melting Discovered in ancient times

Boils at 1380°C, melts at 630.5°C

Notes:

Antimony exists in many allotropic forms, such as a bright silvery white metal, which is hard and brittle. It is a poor conductor of electricity and heat and does not tarnish in air unless the air is moist, in which case it slowly oxides. It shows a rare characteristic of expanding when it solidifies, and thus is good for casting and type metals. Combined with either tin, lead, or copper it forms anti-friction alloys that are used in machinery bearings.

ARGON

Atomic symbol: Ar

Atomic weight: 39.948

Atomic number: 18

Electron configuration: 2-8-8

Oxidation states: 0

State of matter: gas

Noble Gas

Discovered in 1849 by Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay

Boils at -185.7°C, melts at -189.2°C

Notes:

Argon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless monatomic inert gas. It is obtained from the fractional distillation of liquid air. It is used with nitrogen in filling electric light bulbs, and is used with helium as an inert atmosphere in scientific work.

ARSENIC

Atomic symbol: As

Atomic weight: 74.92160

Atomic number: 33

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-5

Oxidation states: ±3, +5 State of matter: solid Non-metal

Discovered in 1649 Melts at 814°C

Notes:

Arsenic is found in both yellow and gray crystalline forms. Gray arsenic is very brittle and tarnishes in the air. It sublimes under high heat. It is often used as a wood preservative, and because if its high toxicity, an herbicide and pesticide.

BARIUM

Atomic symbol: Ba

Atomic weight: 74.92160

Atomic number: 33

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-8-18-5

Oxidation states: +2 State of matter: solid Light metal

Discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy Boils at 1640°C, mlts at 725°C

Notes:

Barium    is    used    in   metallurgy,    pyrotechnics, radiology and petroleum mining. It has a silvery-white luster when cut. Like many other light elements, it is very reactive, and it displaces hydrogen in water to form barium hydroxide.

BERYLLIUM

Atomic symbol: Be Atomic weight: 9.012182

Atomic number: 4

Electron configuration: 2-2

Oxidation states: +2 State of matter: solid Light metal

Discovered in 1797 by Louis-Nicolas Vauquilin Boils at 2970°C, melts at 1278°C

Notes:

Beryllium is very rare, its pricipale ore is beryl, a complex aluminosilicate. When beryl has traces of chromium impurities, it is emerald. When beryl contains traces of iron, its aquamarine. Beryllium does not occur free in nature, and is primarily used in alloys—especially copper to form non- sparking tools.

BISMUTH

Atomic symbol: Bi

Atomic weight: 208.98040

Atomic number: 83

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-32-18-5

Oxidation states: +3, +5 State of matter: solid Heavy metal, low melting

Discovered in 1450 by Basil Valentine Boils at 1560°C, melts at 271.3°C Notes:

Bismuth shows the greatest opposition of all metals to being magnetized. It has a tin white color with a red tinge. Its alloys are used in fire- sprinkler heads, fire-door release lines, fuses, and other fire-detection and temperature control devices.

BORON

Atomic symbol: B Atomic weight: 10.811

Atomic number: 5

Electron configuration: 2-3

Oxidation states: +3 State of matter: solid Non-metal

Discovered in 1808 by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thènard

Boils at 2550°C, melts at 2300°C

Notes:

Boron is relatively rare, and always found combined with oxygen in borates. It is extremely hard and brittle, and is found in two allotropic forms—crystalline and amorphous. Boron is used in flares to give off a green color, as an igniter in rockets, as filaments in aerospace structures, and in silicon semiconductors to improve conductivity. It is also used in nuclear chemistry as a neutron absorber and typically to harden other metals.

CADMIUM

Atomic symbol: Cd Atomic weight: 112.411

Atomic number: 48

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-18-2

Oxidation states: +2 State of matter: solid Heavy metal, low melting

Discovered in 1817 by Freidrich Strohmeyer Boils at 765°C, melts at 321°C

Notes:

Cadmium is a silvery- white metal that is almost as soft as tin. Like tin, it emits a crackling sound when bent. It is extremely rare, and most cadmium is used in electroplating various alloys to help prevent corrosion.

CALCIUM

Atomic symbol: Ca Atomic weight: 40.078

Atomic number: 20

Electron configuration: 2-8-8-2

Oxidation states: +2 State of matter: solid Light metal

Discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy Boils at 1484°C, melts at 839°C

Notes:

Calcium is just behind aluminum and iron in the list of abundant metals, and makes up 3% of the earth’s crust. Calcium carbonate can be found as limestone, marble, chalk, seashells, and calcite. It is found as dolomite when combined with magnesium. Calcium is a good reducing agent and forms heavy hydroxide coats when in contact with moist air.

CARBON

Atomic symbol: C Atomic weight: 12.0107

Atomic number: 6

Electron configuration: 2-4

Oxidation states: +2, ±4 State of matter: solid Non- metal

Discovered in ancient times Sublimes, melts at 3600°C

Notes:

Carbon is found free as the mineral graphite or as diamonds. It is essential to all animal and plant life. Graphite found in large crystals is mined, or obtained by heating coke and pitch in furnaces at very high temperatures. Volatiles are driven off and large graphite crystals then grown in the furnace. These crystals are made up of sheets of carbon atoms and are black in color. Graphite is used as a lubricant and when molded with clay, forms pencil lead. Graphite is also used as electrodes for batteries and electric arc furnaces.

CERIUM

Atomic symbol: Ce Atomic weight: 140.116

Atomic number: 58

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-20-8-2

Oxidation states: +3, +4 State of matter: solid Heavy metal, brittle

Discovered in 1803 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger

Boils at 3257°C, melts at 798°C Notes:

Cerium is an iron grayish color that is about as soft and ductile as tin. It is used in metallurgy as stabilizers in alloys, in glass as a polishing agent, in ceramics as an opacifying and strengthening agent, and has many other applications.

CESIUM

Atomic symbol: Cs

Atomic weight: 132.9054519

Atomic number: 55

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-18-8-1

Oxidation states: +1

State of matter: solid Light metal

Discovered in 1860 by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff

Boils at 671°C, melts at 28.5°C

Notes:

Cesium was the first element to be discovered spectroscopically. It is a silvery-white metal that is extremely reactive and becomes a liquid in warmer atmospheres. Cesium causes an explosive reaction when dropped in water. It has also been used for the construction and operation of a type of atomic clock.

CHLORINE

Atomic symbol: Cl Atomic weight: 35.453

Atomic number: 17

Electron configuration: 2-8-7

Oxidation states: ±1, +5, +7 State of matter: gas

Non-metal

Discovered in 1774 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele Boils at -35°C, freezes at -101°C

Notes:

Chlorine is very poisonous and not found free in nature. It is the most abundant halogen, found in seawater, rock salt beds, and human gastric juices. Almost all chlorine comes from the electrolysis of brine or a concentrated solution of salt. Chlorine has a sharp, disagreeable odor, which attacks the skin and mucous membranes of the nose and throat. Much chlorine is used to bleach wood pulp for the paper industry, as well as cotton and linen fabrics. Tap water and swimming pool water and both chlorinated to kill bacteria.

CHROMIUM

Atomic symbol: Cr Atomic weight: 51.9961

Atomic number: 58

Electron configuration: 2-8-13-1

Oxidation states: +2, +3, +6

State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, brittle

Discovered in 1797 by Louis-Nicolas Vauquilen Boils at 2482°C, melts at 1890°C

Notes:

Chromium is a bluish white, brittle metal that is both hard and corrosion resistant. It is a very important steel alloy metal, and its chief ore is chromite.

COBALT

Atomic symbol: Co Atomic weight: 58.933195

Atomic number: 27

Electron configuration: 2-8-15-2

Oxidation states: +2, +3 State of matter: solid Heavy metal, ductile

Discovered in 1735 by Georg Brandt Boils at 2908°C, melts at 1495°C

Notes:

Cobalt is a gray, hard, magnetic, ductile, somewhat malleable metal that exists in two allotropic forms. Both forms can exist at room temperature. Alloyed with steel, it is used as permanent magnets. Cobalt occurs mainly as smalite, and cobalt compounds can be used as a catalyst to speed up reactions.

COPPER

Atomic symbol: Cu Atomic weight: 63.546

Atomic number: 29

Electron configuration: 2-8-18-1

Oxidation states: +1, +2 State of matter: solid

Heavy metal, ductile Discovered in ancient times

Boils at 2595°C, melts at 1083°C

Notes:

Copper is a reddish-brown, soft, extremely ductile and malleable metal. When exposed to moist air it is coated with green basic carbonate. Its primary ores are chalcocite, chalcopyrite, and cuprite. It is a great conductor of electricity and is commonly found in electric wires. Alloyed with copper and zinc it is known as brass.

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